In the early hours of Aug. 21, 1968 the Warsaw Pact countries following the Soviet orders invaded Czechoslovakia in order to bring to an end the Prague Spring reform movement. The Prague Spring movement intended to end Soviet totalitarian system. The invasion led to the appointment of Moscow-affiliated leaders and the return of Czechoslovakia to the Soviet bloc. 108 Czechs and Slovaks were killed and around 500 wounded in the invasion.
After the invasion, the Soviet-backed hardliners suppressed freedom of travel, speech and political debate in Czechoslovakia until their fall in late 1989 during the Velvet Revolution led by dissident playwright, politician Vaclav Havel.
The Czech Republic and Slovakia ended their federation peacefully in 1993 and both states joined the EU in 2004.