Publications

Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska   When the Polish government under Edward Gierek introduced new food price increases in the summer of 1980 and Poland faced big international debt and shortages of supplies, a wave of labor unrest was stirred in the country. In July a series of strikes started in Lublin and on 14 August 1980 a […]

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 Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska   In the early hours of Aug. 21, 1968 the Warsaw Pact countries following the Soviet orders invaded Czechoslovakia in order to bring to an end the Prague Spring reform movement. The Prague Spring movement intended to end Soviet totalitarian system. The invasion led to the appointment of Moscow-affiliated leaders and the return […]

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How the Poles saved Europe from the Red Army a century ago   Patrick van Schie   In Western Europe it is perhaps one of the least known battles of the twentieth century, yet one of the most important turning points: the battle of Warsaw in August 1920. Unexpectedly, the young republic of Poland defeated […]

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 Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska In the Slovenian town of Bled you can visit a very interesting villa which serves now as a luxury hotel but it used to be a luxurious summer residence of communist President Josip Broz Tito. President Tito maintained a lavish lifestyle. Besides the Summer Residence in Bled he stayed in Belgrade, capital of […]

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Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska   Today Latvia celebrates the 30th anniversary of the restoration of its Independence. On 4 May 1990, the parliament in Riga decided that Latvia would break away from the Soviet Union and restore its independence, restore  the inter-war Latvian state, re-instituting the Constitution of Latvia of 1922. Latvia had been part of the Soviet […]

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Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska   April 9 marks in Georgia tragedy also referred to as Tbilisi Massacre, Tbilisi tragedy. Many Georgians gathered in Tbilisi on April 9th, 1989 during an anti-Soviet demonstration, as the culmination of weeks of demonstrations, protesting against separatism in the Georgian Black Sea region of Abkhazia and in support of Georgian independence, secession from the […]

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Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska   80 years ago communist, soviet, Stalinist murderers committed one of the biggest crimes of the 20th century: Katyn Massacre. 22,000 citizens of the Republic of Poland, Polish military offices, policemen, intelligentsia were brutally murdered because they were ardent patriots.   On April 3, 1940, from the camp in Kozielsk, which was one of […]

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Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska   On 11 March 1990, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania adopted an Act on the Restoration of an Independent State of Lithuania. All members of the Council signed the Act of Restoration. On this day Lithuania declared Independence from the USSR. The Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of […]

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Beata Bruggeman-Sekowska   Estonian people fought for their independence from the Russian Empire, from 1917 to 1920. The most significant day was February 24th, 1918, on which Estonia declared statehood, which is commemorated as a national holiday. Independence Day  is a national holiday in Estonia marking the anniversary of the Estonian Declaration of Independence in 1918. […]

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Rittmeister Witold Pilecki, a Polish Army officer and intelligence agent during WWII, the author of “Witold’s Report”, the first comprehensive Allied intelligence report on Auschwitz concentration camp and the Holocaust. General Emil Fieldorf “Nil”, Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Armia Krajowa (“Home Army”). Bolesław Kontrym, a Polish Army officer, a Home Army soldier, participant in the […]

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